Air Traffic Management STRATEGY, TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT FOR THE WORLD'S MOST GLOBAL INDUSTRY Sun, 01 Mar 2015 10:57:40 +0000 en-US hourly 1 ADS-C tracking technology no ‘silver bullet’ Sun, 01 Mar 2015 10:26:47 +0000 More ››]]> Efforts to boost the frequency of automatic position reports allowing air traffic controllers to better track aircraft will not act as the ‘silver bullet’, according to Airservices Australia chairman Angus Houston.

The trial is expected to use satellite-based positioning technology already on board 90 per cent of long-haul aircraft that transmits the aircraft’s current position and its next two planned positions, said Houston, who is leading the search for the missing Malaysia Airlines Flight 370.

“But it is an important step in delivering immediate improvements to the way we currently track aircraft while more comprehensive solutions are developed,” added Houston.

The announcement follows a resolution on 6 February by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to adopt a new 15-minute tracking standard for commercial aircraft.

UK satellite business  Inmarsat will be working with industry partners, Airservices Australia, Qantas and Virgin Australia in developing the operational concept for the trial, using Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Contract (ADS-C) satellite technology in Australia’s oceanic regions on long haul commercial airline flights.

Australia’s deputy prime minister Warren Truss said the new approach will offer immediate improvements to monitoring long haul flights and will give the public greater confidence in aviation, without requiring any additional technology investment by airlines.

“This initiative adapts existing technology used by more than 90 per cent of long haul passenger aircraft and would see air traffic control respond more rapidly should an aircraft experience difficulty or an unexpected deviation from its flight plan. I especially welcome the involvement of both Indonesia and Malaysian air traffic control providers to make this a truly regional initiative.”

Airservices Australia is the first air navigation service provider (ANSP) to trial the ICAO standard, using Inmarsat’s global flight tracking ADS-C service which provides air traffic controllers with a constantly updated surveillance picture of their airspace, allowing safe and efficient oceanic operations.

Around 11,000 commercial passenger aircraft are already equipped with an Inmarsat satellite connection, representing over 90 per cent of the world’s long haul commercial fleet. Airlines participating in the trial include Qantas and Virgin Australia.

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Talking drone offers aviation safety boost Sat, 28 Feb 2015 10:21:54 +0000 More ››]]>
talking drone

In a world first, RMIT University researchers have developed a talking drone that can converse with air traffic controllers just like a normal pilot.

The development is a critical step towards the full integration of unmanned aircraft systems – or drones – into civil airspace.

The project, part of a larger research initiative that aims to address safety and efficiency issues related to drones and air traffic management, is the result of a partnership between RMIT, Thales Australia and the company’s Centre for Advanced Studies in Air Traffic Management (CASIA), and UFA.

Dr Reece Clothier, leader of the RMIT Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Research Team, said drones needed to be able to fly safely alongside other airspace users without causing disruption to air traffic management.

View the video:

“The majority of air traffic control services are provided to aircraft by voice radio – aircraft controllers speaking directly to pilots,” Dr Clothier said.

“Our project aimed to develop and demonstrate an autonomous capability that would allow a drone to verbally interact with air traffic controllers.

“Using the system we’ve developed, an air traffic controller can talk to, and receive responses from, a drone just like they would with any other aircraft.”

Philippe Bernard-Flattot, technical director at Thales Australia, said: “This is a significant project that is important for the future of air traffic control systems.

“It brings the safe and seamless operation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles within civil airspace one step closer, and is an excellent example of close collaboration between different teams.”

The new system – which was presented by researchers in a paper at the recent Australian International Aerospace Congress – enables a drone to respond to information requests and act on clearances issued by an air traffic controller, using ATVoice, UFA’s voice recognition and response technology.

Flight-testing of a prototype system was completed late last year, demonstrating integration to Thales’ Top Sky Air Traffic Control System. Further studies are now underway to better understand the benefits, and explore the human factor issues associated with the automation of drone to air traffic controller communications.

Drones are the fastest growing sector of the aviation industry, with worldwide sales expected to top $US6 billion in 2015. The RMIT UAS Research Team addresses the safety, regulatory, social and technical challenges facing the emerging industry.

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Pole Position Fri, 27 Feb 2015 09:15:19 +0000 More ››]]> Delays in high profile upgrades in Europe and the US have pushed Australia’s Airservices into pole position in the global quest to implement new generation systems to attain cost reduction and operational efficiency.

Up until budget sequestration in the US and schedule delays in Europe caused their respective ATM projects to stall, Australia had been planning the development and implementation of its new ATM system – OneSKY – to coincide with the Single European Sky (SES) and its US counterpart NextGen, Julian Green reported in December 2013.

But with equal measures of ambition and hesitation, Airservices’ project lead for OneSKY, Jason Harfield says the Australian air navigation service provider is in a position now where it is going to be implementing well before NextGen and SESAR are operating. “So we’ve had to start developing the roadmap ourselves because this isn’t about replacing a system, this is about changing the way we do business in the industry,” says Harfield.

When Airservices commissioned TAAATS (The Australian Advanced Air Traffic System) in 1999, it had been envisaged that the new system would integrate military and civil air traffic control requirements. However, with the differences in approach, specification and philosophy proving too divergent, Airservices procured a standalone system for civil use.

Then, with the economic operational life of TAAATS coming to an end, discussions between the Australian Department of Defence and Airservices started once again in an effort to explore the concept of integration. Since 2009 both parties have been working successfully to overcome historic differences in a project that is not only bold for its local ambitions, but for its line-up in the global ATM development programme.

“We’re implementing something that’s going to manage more than 11 per cent of the earth’s surface, we’re doing it combined with defence, so really this is something on a scale that isn’t being done anywhere else right now,” says Harfield.


Given its high profile, it’s not surprising OneSKY has come under close scrutiny from observers who claim the project is massively over-budget and late. But Harfield strongly defends the project’s position, stating the cost to date in developing the specifications and preparing the request for tender (RFT) has been in the order of $30 million.

“The figure is around expectations for the timeframe – a four-year process. And to put it into perspective, by the time we implement OneSKY you’re looking at a $600 million infrastructure programme. The amount spent on the RFT was around five per cent of the total project cost.”

Harfield does admit, however, the RFT was 12 months later than originally anticipated. As he explained, getting it right at the outset was critical when defining the specifications for a joint-use system.

“Obviously we would have preferred to have issued the RFT earlier, but it has been important that we take account of the variances to the core system requirements that come from the specific operational differences between civil and military without compromising either.”


Eighty per cent of the civil and military requirements overlap and are much the same, while the remaining 20 per cent, in the case of military requirements for example, is national contingency and forward deployment. “Our 20 per cent is managing in the pre-tactical space – networked flow management and enroute, which the military doesn’t have so much of a requirement for,” says Harfield.

“We wanted to work through all those issues well before we went to RFT. This is why it has taken longer to get to RFT than we originally proposed.”

Now, as tender submissions are being evaluated, Harfield believes Airservices’ lead position is likely to result in benefits for both the users and the supplier.

‘The interest was always going to be strong simply because of the magnitude of the OneSKY project, but with NextGen and SESAR pushing out and us being first to approach the market, the suppliers are expressing massive interest, because whoever is the successful tenderer suddenly has a showroom to get into the US and European markets,” says Harfield.

“We’re procuring a system that we are implementing in 2018 that will last us until at least 2035, so a lot of what will be contained in the tender submissions will represent a ‘technology road map’ towards the end date not necessarily as technology stands today.”

Despite the late start, Harfield is committed to retaining schedule integrity towards the beginning of transition from TAAATS to OneSKY in 2018 with contract signature with the successful supplier in early 2015.

The system specification has been deliberately modularised so components can be upgraded to take account of new regulatory requirements, technology advances or other developments without the need for a whole-of-system replacement.

“The system cannot remain static. We’re designing it so it has the flexibility to be upgraded throughout its life. This will be the last time that we upgrade for total replacement,” concludes Harfield.


At the same time as advancing on the strategic front, Airservices has been steadily rolling out its ADS-B platform in time for the 12 December mandate for aircraft flying within the Australian FIR above FL290.

Airservices has commissioned 31 ground stations across the Australian mainland and adjacent islands. A further 14 stations will be installed over the coming three years to provide additional surveillance coverage at lower altitudes and to support future ADS-B mandates. Meanwhile, consideration is currently being given to the installation of ADS-B stations on offshore gas and oil platforms to extend coverage in the far northwest where air activity is booming thanks to the rapidly growing resources sector.

Immediately outside the Australian FIR, Papua New Guinea is set to invest in ADS-B and Australia is already sharing ADS-B information with Indonesia. Both measures are aimed at improving boundary performance.

Already 90 per cent of all civil flights above FL290 are conducted using ADS-B, with equipage among Australian-registered aircraft very high for aircraft servicing scheduled and fly-in/fly-out operations with 94 per cent of all international flights compliant.

However, the corporate sector lags significantly behind with only 25 per cent of aircraft fitted with the required avionics, leaving an estimated 106 business jets unequipped. The Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority is now looking at whether it will publish an exemption for operators in radar coverage and trans-oceanic airspace, something Airservices said it would be ‘prepared to facilitate’.


As both ADS-B and OneSKY pull together Airservices’ neighbours towards closer co-operation, two programmes the air navigation service provider (ANSP) is deeply involved in are generating tangible cost and environmental benefits in routine operations.

ASPIRE (Asia and South Pacific Initiative to Reduce Emissions) and its sister project INSPIRE (Indian Ocean Strategic Partnership to Reduce Emissions) are together now routinely offering some of the 80 foreign airlines serving Australia and all domestic carriers the benefits of flexible tracking and company-preferred routes. Under the now commonplace collaborative decision-making philosophy, Airservices is facilitating some 500 flights a month under ASPIRE alone.

While flex tracking becomes routine, demonstration flights are still conducted to prove developments that come from practice and collaboration between the more than dozen ANSPs and nearly 20 airlines and airports that are involved with ASPIRE and INSPIRE.

In September, Airservices and long-time user of INSPIRE, Emirates, conducted a demonstration flight between Dubai, Brisbane and Auckland.

The two flights were the most recent of more than 100 similar demonstrations across the Indian and Pacific Oceans. On a flight of a similar stage length to that typically operated on any of Emirates’ 84 flights a week from Dubai to Australia, average fuel savings of 740kg and a reduction of 2.3 tonnes of CO2 have been realised.


As Greg Hood, Airservices’ executive general manager, air traffic control, points out: “The first flex track with Emirates back in 2004 saved 44 minutes of flight time. We’ve been doing it ever since. The trial flights such as the recent one with Emirates on INSPIRE allow us the opportunity to identify any areas for further improvement that need to be addressed by us.”

Conflict recognition, protection and resolution tools are now the prime focus.

“User-preferred routes do add complexity. When we had fixed crossing routes you had very clear (separation) calculations. Now when routes change every day it means conflict points change every day. That presents challenges to the controller to manage separation especially outside surveillance areas,” says Hood.

ADS-B will clearly play a role in this effort, allowing controllers to apply a radar-like standard to separation in busier airspace. Similarly, OneSKY will have inbuilt tools that enhance conflict alerting and resolution.

But Hood says one of the greatest assets is that neighbouring ANSPs are talking to one another. Levels of systemic safety have certainly increased as a result allowing Airservices the ability to create synergies between ANSPs, particularly in automated messaging.

“We are gaining strong benefits where those synergies occur,” he says, adding that incident rates where automated systems are matched at FIR boundaries, such as New Zealand and the US, are very low.

While across the Indian and Pacific Oceans the level of synergies are high, to the north of Australia the situation is still developing beyond the progressive rollout of ADS-B.

“Some northern ANSPs have not yet procured systems for automated communications and in those types of situations you are faced with an increased potential for human error at the FIR boundary,” says Hood.

However, Hood notes: “We’re seeing a heavy investment in this infrastructure right across the region. I’d be very confident that in five years we’ll have systems that talk to each other and that seamless messaging will exist across the region.”





Issue 4, 20143

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Data Window Fri, 27 Feb 2015 08:58:05 +0000 More ››]]> David Hughes from the US Federal Aviation Administration discusses how Big Data is enabling new insights and action on safety

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the US airline industry analyse massive amounts of combined government and aircraft operational data to identify hazards and take corrective or preventive action when necessary.

The Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) programme is unique in the aviation world. The government/industry partnership got started in 2007. It has been so successful that other countries, regions, and safety organisations want to emulate it.

ASIAS, a NextGen safety tool, aggregates safety data by the terabyte from 185 sources across industry and government including 45 commercial air carriers and 10 corporate operators.It relies on the principles of using voluntarily supplied safety information in a de-identified, aggregate and protected manner, solely for the purposes of improving safety. Voluntarily submitted safety data is key to reducing risk in aviation and is protected from public release.

This ‘big data’ collection allows safety researchers to compare multiple sources of information for a single safety incident. It also enables users to perform integrated queries across multiple databases, search an extensive warehouse of safety data, and display pertinent elements in an array of useful formats

The computer-enabled analysis can look into millions of operations to identify safety issues and trends. The result is a new take on safety issues that often have nationwide implications beyond a single location or a single airline.


“Either party in the partnership could have done part of this by themselves,” says Don Carter, senior manager of safety risk management for Southwest Airlines. He serves on the Issues Analysis Team, an ASIAS governing group. “But this is symbiotic. Neither one of us could have done it nearly as well alone as we could do it in partnership.”

Southwest’s goal is to use ASIAS as part of the implementation of a safety risk management process that can identify and mitigate hazards that exist in daily operations, Carter says.

ASIAS allows member airlines to check their own data against aggregate data from other airlines on such issues as unstabilised approaches at a particular airport or occurrences of the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS).

A hazard affecting more than one airline or one location might require industry-wide action. For example, ASIAS helped airlines quantify the number of ground proximity warning system (GPWS) nuisance alerts. Unnecessary warnings can distract pilots. The ASIAS analysis revealed that upgrading software could improve performance and reduce nuisance alerts.

ASIAS data sources include voluntary safety reporting systems, such as airlineAviation Safety Action Program, and flight data recording programmes, such as Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA). The FAA also provides vast amounts of data on National Airspace System (NAS) operations.

More Useful

Now ASIAS is expanding use of the data and making it more useful for the parties involved. For example, the FAA and the airlines are working on a data fusion capability in a year-long prototype test. The idea is to correlate safety data relating to a particular flight into a ‘flight story’. The flight story will associate information such as FOQA data with flight tracks recorded in radar surveillance data.

“It is more than a flight track. It has associated information with it, such as which runway is open or closed, and the Notices to Airmen and weather information at the departure and arrival airport,” says Scott LeMay, the FAA’s ASIAS programme manager. “We will not only know where the aircraft was in space and time but we will be able to more directly associate pilot and controller reports, weather, aircraft attitude, and system settings on the flight deck, etc., to go along with a safety issue we are studying. This will be accomplished in a uniquely protected environment and results are only available at an aggregate system level.”

ASIAS also has been playing an important role in safety analysis as the FAA designs and deploys new NextGen procedures to help airlines and other aircraft operators save fuel while reducing emissions.

As of February 2015, the FAA had introduced into the NAS more than 7,000 NextGen Performance Based Navigation (PBN) procedures, which use satellite-based navigation. With PBN, flight crews use advanced aircraft avionics to operate within tightly contained flight paths, which enhances safety.

“The use of these procedures is expected to increase significantly as part of NextGen, so it is important to understand and mitigate the safety issues and define areas of safety improvement,” says Jay Pardee, FAA chief scientific and technical advisor for vulnerability discovery and safety measurement programmes.

PBN procedures developed as part of NextGen include Required Navigation Performance (RNP) approaches, Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STAR) for arrivals, and Area Navigation (RNAV) for standard instrument departures.


In 2013, ASIAS’s study of new STAR and RNAV departures identified areas where some aircraft were experiencing altitude and lateral flight path deviations that created the potential for a loss of aircraft separation. ASIAS then determined contributing factors. They included pilot-controller communications, programming of the aircraft’s flight management system (FMS), on-the-ground changes in pre-departure clearances, procedure design and aircraft system compatibility.

The results of ASIAS studies are shared with ASIAS members and the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST). CAST, which includes air carriers, industry associations, labour organisations, manufacturers, regulators and air traffic controllers, has helped reduce the fatality risk for commercial aviation in the US by 83 per cent from 1998 to 2007.

“Once we understand the contributing factors, we work with the CAST team to identify systemic mitigations so that those factors don’t occur – whether they be in procedure design, operational guidance, training or communications,” says LeMay. “CAST monitors the implementation of those voluntary solutions and relies on ASIAS to measure the effectiveness.”

To mitigate the STAR and RNAV departure deviations, “everyone was in the room,” Pardee says. In this case, FAA and industry groups collaborated in establishing the best operating and design practices for all involved, which led to the adoption of several mitigations.

For example, one of the safety enhancements developed guidance to align training for flight crews, controllers and procedure/chart designers. Training is being developed to reduce the number of lateral deviations and missed altitude-crossing restrictions, which will decrease the loss of standard aircraft separation events.

Some deviation errors, for example, occurred when air traffic controllers issued unexpected clearance amendments to the required route, speed or altitude restriction. Pilots had to programme the vital information about the route into the aircraft computers.

The training they devised for controllers includes understanding the complexities of the cockpit workload when the FAA issues a clearance change, Pardee says. And training for pilots now includes adopting procedures to reprogram an FMS safely when controllers issue a change.

“No regulations are involved,” says Pardee. “All aviation community partners participate in the study and agree to the actions and hold each other accountable to achieve the solutions.”

With ASIAS, that partnership will continue to identify and implement safety improvements to NextGen and the NAS.

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Thales Australia clinches OneSky contract Fri, 27 Feb 2015 08:56:18 +0000 More ››]]> 6O5MKVDO948-1000x666Thales Australia has been chosen to commence work with Airservices Australia and the Royal Australian Air Force on the development of a single civil-military air traffic management system.

The OneSKY system will enable a new level of operational and cost efficiency and safety, while reducing delays for the travelling public and improving environmental outcomes.

It will ensure Australia will have the most advanced and integrated air traffic control system in the world.

The new system will unify Australian skies under a harmonised air traffic management system as both agencies work towards creating ‘one sky’ for Australia.

Airservices chief executive Margaret Staib, said that the current system in use by civilian air traffic controllers has had more than 200 incremental system changes since it was first commissioned in 1998.

“It is now time to look to the next 20 years and seize this once-in-a-generation opportunity to replace the ageing systems used by Airservices and RAAF controllers with a single, national solution,” Staib said.

“This will allow us to provide operational efficiency improvements for future growth and ensure we are meeting the demands of our customers and delivering them value for money.

“Importantly, it will also deliver a range of benefits to our customers, stakeholders and ultimately to the travelling public.”

Together, the civil and military elements of the future air traffic management system will support more than 200 operational air traffic control workstations deployed to multiple locations across Australia.

OneSKY will allow a greater ability to share comprehensive and common flight data and information. The move to a single flight information region will also assist in removing many of the constraints that apply to flight planning today, delivering efficiency through greater use of flexible airspace and user preferred routes.

Read More:

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Take part in this year’s Helios industry survey in association with Air Traffic Management Fri, 27 Feb 2015 08:06:47 +0000 More ››]]> LogoTake part in this year’s Helios’ ATM Industry Survey – brought to you in association with Air Traffic Management magazine.

You can participate online now or at the Helios-Egis stand #335 during World ATM Congress in Madrid held between 10-12 March. All participants will be entered into a free prize draw for some fabulous noise-cancelling headphones and complimentary subscriptions.

In the latest issue of Air Traffic Management magazine, Helios’ Naheed Arshad looks back at the survey responses over the last decade and gives her view on what the industry got right and wrong.

She explores how the industry has changed and highlights some of the complexities of progress ahead of this year’s survey.

By 2005, aviation consultancy Helios had embarked on its third ATM Industry Survey, hosted online and at its stand at the ATC Maastricht exhibition. With nearly 400 aviation people taking part, the survey was a true barometer of opinion and expectations.

Now, with a decade’s worth of hindsight, Arshad reports that it looks like respondents participating back in 2005, got it right when they identified political, legal and sovereignty issues as the greatest challenge to Single European Sky implementation.

“It is also evident that their great hopes have not been realised. Nevertheless, European ATM looks quite different in terms of the roles and responsibilities of its institutions, the regulations that govern it and even the technologies that it is developing,” she reports.

The 2015 survey will pick up on these themes and ask today’s aviation professionals what they think has been achieved, what their greatest disappointments are and where they think the greatest benefits lie. The findings will be announced in the next issue of Air Traffic Management magazine.

Survey Link:

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FAA lifts northern Ethiopia overflight ban Thu, 26 Feb 2015 13:19:19 +0000 More ››]]>

The FAA has lifted a nearly 15-year-old prohibition on flight operations within the airspace or territory of northern Ethiopia.

The ban was instituted in May 2000 “because of the threat posed by the outbreak of hostilities between Ethiopia and Eritrea,” according to the FAA. The agency, at that time, banned U.S. air carriers, commercial operators, holders of FAA-issued airman certificates and U.S.-registered aircraft (with the exception of foreign air carrier aircraft) from operating north of 12 degrees north latitude – roughly north of Lake Tana, Ethiopia’s largest lake.

“The FAA has now determined that the safety and security situation that prompted the above flight prohibition has significantly improved, and that it is safe for U.S. civil flights to be operated within the entire territory and airspace of Ethiopia, subject to the approval of and in accordance with the conditions established by the appropriate authorities of Ethiopia,” the FAA said in its February 4 notice lifting the ban.


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Frequentis supports German ACCs Thu, 26 Feb 2015 13:18:50 +0000 More ››]]> Frequentis has released the fully-virtual Frequentis DIVOS 3 log voice recording system, developed with significant input from Deutsche Flugsicherung (DFS).

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Becker fields ADS-B tracking system Thu, 26 Feb 2015 13:16:12 +0000 More ››]]> Becker Avionics has launched a new ADS-B based tracking and surveillance system for flight and ground operations.

The system is called ATLASS, short for ADS-B Traffic Localisation and Surveillance System.

ATLASS is a standalone ADS-B traffic monitoring system that provides a recognised air and ground situational awareness picture.

Becker Avionics has been developing, producing and servicing Air Traffic Control (ATC) equipment and ground communication systems worldwide for over 50 years. ATLASS is the latest evolution of Becker’s ATC product development expertise.

ATLASS applications include:

  • Situational awareness and safety enhancement
  • Airport operations supervision
  • Surface movement awareness
  • Search and rescue mission management
  • Security / border control
  • Law enforcement
  • Flight following for airlines and fleet operators
  • Back-up / fall-back situation display for ATC
  • UAV operations surveillance



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FAA to use data fusion to prevent near-misses Thu, 26 Feb 2015 11:44:14 +0000 More ››]]> The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is developing data fusion techniques to re-create flight scenarios in a bid to solve safety issues.

The news comes after United Airlines confirmed it had sent a safety warning to pilots following several serious incidents caused by errors by flight crew.

Flight operations chiefs at the US airline issued the January 9 bulletin following four separate ‘safety events and near misses’, including one in which pilots had to execute an emergency pull-up manoeuvre while another flight landed with less than the mandatory-minimum fuel reserves.

In a year-long prototype test, the FAA and selected airlines will work on a data fusion capability within its Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) programme. Launched in 2007, ASIAS aggregates safety data from 185 sources across industry and government including 45 commercial air carriers and 10 corporate operators who voluntarily supply the information in a de-identified, aggregate and protected manner.

The new capability will aim to correlate safety data relating to a particular flight into a ‘flight story’ that will link flight data with tracks recorded in radar surveillance data.

“It is more than a flight track. It has associated information with it, such as which runway is open or closed, and the Notices to Airmen and weather information at the departure and arrival airport,” said Scott LeMay, the FAA’s ASIAS programme manager.

“We will not only know where the aircraft was in space and time but we will be able to more directly associate pilot and controller reports, weather, aircraft attitude, and system settings on the flight deck, etc., to go along with a safety issue we are studying. This will be accomplished in a uniquely protected environment and results are only available at an aggregate system level.”

ASIAS is also playing an important role in safety analysis as the FAA designs and deploys new NextGen Performance Based Navigation (PBN) procedures. “The use of these procedures is expected to increase significantly as part of NextGen, so it is important to understand and mitigate the safety issues and define areas of safety improvement,” said Jay Pardee, FAA chief scientific and technical advisor for vulnerability discovery and safety measurement programmes.

PBN procedures developed as part of NextGen include Required Navigation Performance (RNP) approaches, Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STAR) for arrivals, and Area Navigation (RNAV) for standard instrument departures.

Read: Data Window

* Europe is to build its own aviation safety information analysis and sharing system along the lines of the Federal Aviation Administration’s ASIAS. “It will however be very different as it will need to adjust to the European reality of multiple authorities, 27 official languages and different data protection laws,” EASA director general Patrick Ky tells Air Traffic Management in an exclusive interview.

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